Sunday, November 6, 2011

Aplikasi gelombang bunyi bidang kedokteran

Pemeriksaan bagian dalam tubuh manusia dengan Ultrasonic dinamakan USG(Ultrasonografi)  merupakan aplikasi gelombang bunyi dalam bidang kedokteran.  Pemeriksaan dengan menggunakan Ultrasonografi  memanfaatkan sifat gelombang yaitu bisa dipantulkan termasuk gelombang bunyi.  Ketika pulsa-pulsa ultrasonik menumbuk sebuah dinding maka pulsa tersebut sebagian akan dipantulkan dan sebagian lagi akan diteruskan.  Salah satu sifat dari gelombang adalah dapat dipantulkan  seperti yang sudah dibahas pada posting tentang gelombang serta gelombang bunyi ada gelombang bunyi dengan frekuensi sangat tinggi bisa diaplikasi dalam bidang kedokteran.

Ultrasonografi sebagai gelombang bunyi  dipancarkan pada tubuh manusia pulsa-pulsa akan dipantulkan oleh jaringan, jaringan tulang, otot serta cairan yang memiliki massa jenis yang berbeda. Sama halnya seperti mengukur kedalaman  laut yang sudah dibahas dalam  aplikasi gelombang binyi dalam bidang industri. Pantulannya akan ditampilkan dalam layar osciloskop yang menggambarkan bagian dalam tubuh. Sebagai contoh aplikasi gelombang bunyi dalam bidang kedokteran adalah pemeriksaan  janin dan ibu hamil oleh dokter spesialis kandungan  dan kebidanan.  Dengan  mengamati  layar monitor dokter bisa mengetahui  ukuran janin, denyut jantung sampai jenis kelamin, maka dokter bisa memonitor pertumbuhan serta kesehatan janin.

Pemeriksaan dengan Ultrasonografi lebih aman dibandingkan dengan pemeriksaan menggunakan sina-x(sinar Rontgen) baik bagi ibu yang mengandung atau bagi janin. Karena ultrasonik tidak akan merusak material yang dilewatinya  karena ultrasonik merupakan salah satu gelombang mekanik sehingga pemeriksaan Ultrasonografi disebut Pengujian tak merusak (non destructive testing) disingkat  NDT.  Aplikasi gelombang bunyi dalam bidang kedokteran  yang lain adalah penggunaan ultrasonografi  untuk pemeriksaan kanker pada hati dan otak.

Kelebihan penggunaan Ultrasonografi dibanding penggunaan sinar x adalah
  • Ultrasonografi lebih aman  untuk melihat janin di dalam rahim ibu hamil dibanding sinar x karena sinar x dapat meng-ionisasi sel hidup
  • Ultrasonografi dapat digunakan terus menerus untuk melihat pergerakan serta perkembangan sebuah janin
  • Ultrasonografi dapat mengukur kedalaman suatu benda di bawah permukaan kulit melalui selang waktu dipancarkan sampai dipantulkan kembali gelombang ultrasonik. Sedangkan gambar yang dihasilkan oleh sinax datar tanpa petunjuk jarak letak sebuah benda atau kedalaman benda.
  • Ultrasonigrafi mampu mendeteksi perbedaan antar jaringan-jaringan lunak dalam tubuh yang tidak dapat dilakukan oleh sinar x sehingga mampu menemukan tumor atau gumpalan lunak di tubuh manusia. 

Mengukur laju aliran darah
Untuk memonitor laju aliran darah pulsa ultrasonik berfrekuensi 5 – 10 MHZ diarahkan menuju pembuluh nadi dan suatu Reseiver akan menerima signal hamburan gelombang pantul. Frekuensi pantulan akan bergantung pada gerak aliran darah. Metode ini dalam ilmu fisika sesuai dengan efek Doppler tujuannya untuk mendeteksi trombosis(penyempitan pembuluh darah). Karena trombosis akan menyebabkan  perubahan laju aliran darah.

Demikian postingan kali ini merupakan sambungan dari aplikasi gelombang bunyi dalam bidang industri  yang sangat berguna bagi manusia dalam kehidupan sehari-hari .

Referensi :
buku-buku fisika SMA
sumber gambar


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