Monday, January 30, 2012

Momentum dan Impuls

Momentum dan Impuls dalam pembahasan fisika adalah sebagai satu kesatuan karena momentum dan Impuls dua besaran yang setara. Dua besaran dikatakan setara seperti momentum dan Impuls bila memiliki satuan Sistim Internasional(SI) sama atau juga dimensi sama seperti yang sudah dibahas dalam besaran dansatuan.  Posting kali ini akan sedikit membahas mengenai pengertian momentum dan impuls.

 
Pengertian Momentum
Momentum adalah hasil kali antara massa dan kecepatan. Secara matematis dapat dituliskan sebagai berikut
  P = m.v
Keterangan
  • P = momentum(kg.m/s)
  • M=massa(kg)
  • V=kecepatan(m/s)
Jadi momentum adalah besaran yang dimiliki oleh sebuah benda atau partikel yang bergerak.

Contoh
Sebuah bus bermassa 5 ton bergerak dengan kecepatan tetap 10 m/s. Berapa momentum yang dimiliki bus tersebut?
Penyelesaian:
Dengan menggunakan persamaan diatas maka kita mendapatkan besar momentum bus sebesar P = mv
P = 5000 kg x 20 m/s
P= 100000 kg m/s
(catatan 1 ton = 1000 kg)

Pengertian Impuls
Impuls adalah peristiwa gaya yang bekerja pada benda dalam waktu hanya sesaat. Atau Impuls adalah peristiwa bekerjanya gaya dalam waktu yang sangat singkat. Contoh dari kejadian impuls adalah: peristiwa seperti bola ditendang, bola tenis dipukul karena pada saat tendangan dan pukulan, gaya yang bekerja sangat singkat.
  I=F.Δt
Keterangan
  • I= impuls
  • F=gaya(N)
  • Δt=selang waktu(s)
Contoh:
Sebuah bola dipukul dengan gaya 50 Newton dengan waktu 0,01 sekon. Berapa besar Impus pada bola tersebut?
Penyelesaian
Dengan menggunakan persamaan diatas maka
I=F.Δt
I=50 N. 0,01s
I=0,5 Ns

Impuls sama dengan perubahan momentum
Suatu partikel yang bermassa m bekerja gaya F yang konstan, maka setelah waktu  Δt partikel tersebut bergerak dengan kecepatan
Vt=V0+ a Δt seperti yang sudah dibahas pada post glbb(gerak lurus berubah beraturan)
  F=m.a,
Dengan subtitusi kedua persamaan tersebut maka diperoleh
 I=F.Δt = mvt – mv0
Keterangan
  • mvt = mementum benda pada saat kecepatan vt
  • mv0 = mementum benda pada saat kecepatan v0
Contoh soal
Sebuah bola sepak massa 200 gram menggelinding ke arah timur dengan kecepatan 2 m/s. Ditendang dalam waktu 0,1 sekon. Sehingga kecepatannya menjadi 8 m/s pada arah yang sama. Tentukan gaya yang diberikan kaki penendang terhadap bola!
 
Soal ini bisa diselesaikan dengan  konsep   Impuls=perubahan momentum


Demikian posting kali ini semoga membantu buat siswa kelas 10 tentang Momentum dan Impuls, kurang lebih silakan tulis di kolom komentar

sumber gambar
http://www.antonin.education.co.uk

86 comments:

  1. mau tanya, itu yang contoh soal pertama itu kok v nya 20 m/s ??
    kan keterangan di atasnya 10 m/s ??

    ReplyDelete
  2. tanya ya,,
    jika sebuah persamaan benar secara dimensi,apakah ini berarti persamaan'a harus benar,,??
    jika persamaan tidak benar secara dimensi, apakah berarti persamaan tdk bisa di katakan benar??

    ReplyDelete
  3. dimensi momentum itu apa sih? rumusnya MLTkuadrat bukan?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bila di lihat dari rumus.
      p=m.v

      =m.s/t maka dimensi dari momentum adalah ML/T
      Atau sama dengan MLTpangkat -1.

      Maaf nulis di hp jadi tdk ada simbol (pngkat-1)

      Delete
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