Friday, February 3, 2012

Spektrum Gelombang Elektromagnetik


Spektrum adalah sebuah kata lain yang berarti “hantu” atau bayangan hitam. Kata Spektrum  pertama kali digunakan oleh Isaac Newton pada tahun 1671. Untuk menjelaskan bayangan sinar yang dibentuk oleh prisma menyerupai pelangi yang berwarna warni seperti lagu anak TK “pelangi-pelangi” yang dinamakan spektrum gelombang elektromagnetik.


Spektrum gelombang elektromagnetik terdiri atas tujuh macam gelombang yang dibedakan berdasarkan frekuensi serta panjang gelombang tetapi cepat rambat di ruang hampa adalah sama. Yaitu c =3 x 108 m/s. Seperti yang sudah dibahas dalam teori Maxwell tentang gelombang elektromagnetik. frekuensi gelombang terkecil adalah gelombang cahaya serta panjang gelombang terbesar sedangkan frekuensi terbesar adalah sinar gamma serta panjang gelombang terpendek.
Urutannya adalah:  
  • gelombang radio dan televisi
  • gelombang mikr
  • infra merah
  • cahaya tampak
  • ultraviolet
  • siar x
  • sinar gamma
Urutan dari atas ke bawah adalah frekuensi makin besar serta panjang gelombang makin pendek karena frekuensi dan panjang gelombang berbanding terbalik seperti yang sudah dibahas pada gejala-gejala gelombang.

Berikut kegunaan serta sifat dari spektrum gelombang elektromagnetik 
 
1. Gelombang radio dan Televisi
Gelombang radio dan televisi, memiliki frekuensi terkecil untuk semua spektrum gelombang elektromagnetik frekuensi dimulai dari 30 kHz . sumbernya adalah oscilator elektronik yang bergetar. Gelombang ini memiliki kegunaan serta dikelompokkan tergantung kepada panjang gelombangnya serta frekuensinya. Mulai dari alat komunikasi radio FM, Televisi serta telepon.

2. Gelombang Mikro.
Gelombang mikro merupakan gelombang radio dengan frekuensi paling tinggi(SHF=Super High Frekuensi), yaitu 3 GHz (3 x 109 Hz).Gelombang mikro dihasilkan oleh peralatan yang dinamakan tabung klystron. Kegunaanya adalah sebagaipenghantar energi panas yang digunakan pada oven mikrowave(mikrowave oven) untuk memasak makan lebih cepat serta ekonomis. Kegunaan lain adalah pada antene RADAR(Radio Detection and Ranging) pesawat radar ini bekerja menggunakan sifat pemantulan seperti halnya pada binatang kelelawar yang menggunakan ultrasonic untuk penginderaan.

3. Infra merah.
Sinar infra merah memiliki daerah dengan jangkauan frekuensi 1011 sampai 1014 Hz. Sinar infra merah dihasilkan oleh elektron dari molekul-molekul yang bergetar karena panas. Misalnya bara api, nyala api, tubuh manusia. Sumber infra merah terbesar adalah matahari. Sinar ini memiliki sifat membawa energi panas, sehingga dengan intensitas yang tinggi bisa membakar kuli. Sifat lainnya tidak terlihat tetapi dapat menghitamkan pelat foto sehingga digunakan untuk penginderaan pada tempat gelap, kamera infra merah serta membuat foto satelit seperti yang digunakan dalam google earth.

4. Cahaya atau sinar tampak
Sinar tampak adalah satu-satunya spektrum gelombang elektromagmnetik yang dapat dilihat semuanya terdiri dari tujuh spektrum warna yaitu: merah-jingga-kuning-hijau-biru-nila-ungu. Sinar merah memiliki panjang  gelombang terpanjang tetapi frekuensi terkecil serta ungu panjang gelombang terpendek tapi frekuensi terbesar.

5. ultraviolet
Sinar ultraviolet  dihasilkan oleh atom dan molekul dalam loncatan nyala api listrik. Memiliki energi kmia sehingga bisa memendarkan barium platina sianida, menghitamkan pelat foto serta dapat membunuh bakteri juga kuman-kuman. Sebagai detektor untuk membedakan antara uang asli dan palsu.  Sumber-sumber ultraviolet adalah matahari, busur karbon,lampu mercury.

6. Sina-x
Sinar-x. disebut juga sinar rontgen  dihasilkan oleh elektron-elektron yang terletak dibagian kulit elektron atau dari pancaran radisi yang keluar ketika elektron yang berkecepatan tinggi menumbuk permukaan logam. Mempunyai daya tembus sangat besar sehingga dapat digunakan untuk memotret susunan tulang dalam tubuh, misalnya untuk menentukan letak tulang yang retak akibat kecelakaan. Termasuk berbahaya karena dapat mengionisasi sel hidup sehingga tidak boleh digunakan oleh ibu hamil maka untu melihat janin dalam kandungan digunakan ultrasonografi.
  
7. Sinar gamma
sinara gamma, memiliki frekuensi paling besar serta panjang gelombang terkecil diantara spektrum gelombang elektromagnetik sehingga daya tembus sangat besar dapat menembus pelat besi. Dihasilkan dari inti atom yang tidak stabil . Dapat digunakan  untuk membunuh sel kanker serta sterilisasi alat-lat kedokteran.

Demikian posting tentang spektrum gelombang elektromagnetik, semoga bermanfaat kurang dan lebih mari kita diskusikan di kolom komentar.
sumber gambar
www.wikipedia.org

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